Download Analytic Functions Kozubnik 1979: Proceedings by Lawrynowicz J. (Ed) PDF

By Lawrynowicz J. (Ed)

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5. Define in the planning documents the types of statistical tests that will be used for data evaluation. 6. Use one-tailed statistical test when comparing a data set to an action level to decide whether a mean concentration is above or below the action level. 7. Use two-tailed statistical tests when comparing two statistical parameters to each other. 8. Use Student’s t-test for small, normally distributed populations (number of samples is less than 30). 9. Use standard normal distribution (z-statistic) for large populations (number of samples is greater than 30).

What is a range of possible values of the parameter of interest where the consequences of decision errors are relatively minor (‘gray region’)? Because of the non-probabilistic sampling approach, this step is not applicable. Several measures are proposed as a means to reduce the probability of discharging water with the VOC concentrations exceeding the discharge permit limitations, such as the following: . More frequent sampling . Specific QA/QC requirements to control the uncertainty associated with sampling error .

2 Accuracy Accuracy measures the closeness of a measurement to the true parameter value. Accuracy is a combination of random error (precision) and systematic error (bias). 2 41 Quantitative evaluation of data quality indicators Equation Definitions Precision 1 Relative Percent Difference xi —sample measurement xd —duplicate measurement jxi À xd j xi þ xd 6100 2 Accuracy 2 Recovery, percent xsþi —spiked sample measurement xi —sample measurement sa —true amount added in the spiking procedure xsþi À xi 6100 sa Completeness 3a Analytical completeness, percent V P xi 1 6100 T P xi xi —sample measurement V—number of valid sample measurements T—number of total sample measurements 1 3b Analytical completeness, percent V P xi 1 6100 P P xp xi —sample measurement V—number of valid sample measurements xp —number of planned measurements P—number of planned samples 1 3c Sampling completeness, percent C P S 1 6100 P P S S—sample C—number of collected samples P—number of planned samples 1 3d Holding time completeness, percent NÀM P A 1 6100 N P A A—analysis N—total number of analyses M—number of analytes with missed holding time 1 have a high accuracy.

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